Shoe Restore
Normal Convention
Talent Degree 3 Answer-Keys 06.jpg
Yr of Introduction: 1928

1. Title at the least 5 important elements of a shoe and clarify their makes use of.[edit]


The underside of a shoe, which helps the wearer’s foot, is called the only. It often consists of a number of layers, and is often a separate piece from the higher shoe (although not at all times, as within the case of picket footwear).


The insole is the inside backside of the shoe, which sits immediately beneath the foot. Many footwear have detachable and replaceable insoles, and further insoles are sometimes added for consolation or well being causes. (To manage the form, moisture, or odor of the shoe, for instance.)


The mid-sole is a layer located between the in-sole and the out-sole, present in some footwear. Usually it’s going to present cushioning and form to the in-sole.

Footwear produced from actual crocodile pores and skin, in a conservation exhibit at Bristol Zoo, England


The outsole is the layer in direct contact with the bottom. The fabric of the outsole varies relying on the perform, dressiness, and high quality of the shoe, however is usually very sturdy materials, because it experiences essentially the most stress. Dressier footwear have leather-based outsoles; informal or work-oriented footwear have outsoles made from pure rubber or an artificial imitation. The outsole might comprise a single piece, or might comprise separate items of various supplies. Usually the heel of the only is rubber for sturdiness and traction, whereas the entrance is leather-based for type. Specialised footwear will typically have distinct modifications on this design: athletic cleats have spikes embedded within the outsole to grip the bottom.


Some footwear have a particular raised heel; typically it is a separate piece from the outsole and may be changed. Leather-based was used up to now, and continues to be utilized in some efficiency tennis footwear, however more durable supplies are often extra fascinating. Plastic, rubber, or polymer supplies at the moment are additionally used. Fortified cork is typically utilized in heels or soles so the footwear are light-weight.

Vamp, or higher[edit]

Any shoe additionally has an higher half that separates the foot from the air, and helps maintain the shoe onto the foot. Within the easiest instances, resembling sandals or flip flops, this can be nothing various straps for holding the only in place underneath the foot. Closed footwear, resembling boots, sneakers and most mens footwear, will often have a extra complicated higher.


A shoelace is a protracted piece of string or twine that maintain a shoe closed. Normally it’s connected by being threaded by a sequence of small holes within the shoe, referred to as eyelets. To assist this, many shoelaces are tipped with small strong plastic bits referred to as aglets.


In some footwear and boots the tongue is a flap-like, often versatile, half that goes beneath the laces.

2. What’s the distinction between hand-turned soles, Goodyear welt soles, and McKay sewed soles? Which is the best to restore?[edit]

Hand-turned soles[edit]

The sort of shoe is constructed inside-out utilizing a kind referred to as a final. A final is a foot-shaped software, historically made from wooden. After the uppers are made and stitched collectively, they’re faraway from the final, turned right-side-out, and the only is connected. The only is of 1 piece – the topside of the only serves because the insole, and the underside aspect serves because the outsole.

Goodyear welt soles[edit]

In a shoe of this sort, the uppers, insole, and midsole are stitched to the outsole. That is essentially the most safe strategy to connect the only. The insoles are constructed into the shoe reasonably than being inserted after the remainder of the shoe has been made. The higher is drawn over the only and held quickly whereas a strip of leather-based (the welt) is stitched to the higher and inside sole. The only is hand-stitched by the welt to finish the method. This development permits a number of sole replacements, extending the lifetime of the footwear.

As a result of the stitching of the outsole is completed utterly on the skin of the shoe, such a sole is best to restore.

McKay sewed soles[edit]

Ten years after the invention of the stitching machine, Gordon McKay launched a tool for machine-stitching a shoe’s higher to its sole. In such a sole, the insole is connected to the higher whereas it’s nonetheless on the final utilizing tacks that are clinched over. The outsole is then sewn to the meeting by McKay’s machine. The stitching seems on the within of the shoe, as do the tacks. The sort of development was frequent for reasonable, light-weight footwear.

Curved Needle Machine[edit]

The outsole is connected to the higher with a welt. The curve needle machine permits the soles to be stitched by the goodyear welt with out the going by the higher so the footwear may be resoled many instances with out stitching by the uppers.

3. Correctly wax the thread, and with two needles or waxed ends, mend a pair of footwear which have rips in them. Use the double-stitch technique of stitching.[edit]

Shoe restore is finest taught by an skilled cobbler. It’s not actually attainable to be taught this commerce by studying a ebook – it needs to be practiced, and to turn into proficient takes years. One of the best strategy for assembly this requirement (in addition to necessities Four and 5) is to go to a shoe restore store as described in requirement 8. Deliver a pair of footwear which have rips in them so the cobbler can let you apply on your personal footwear reasonably than on his buyer’s footwear.

Ripped footwear don’t essentially have tears within the canvas or leather-based, however might have a burst seam. Virtually any pair of “throw-away” footwear you continue to have in your closet will work for this. Relying on the ability you’ll be able to carry to bear in your first try, you could find yourself throwing them away anyhow. Keep in mind that it is a studying course of, and your objective isn’t essentially to get a wearable pair of footwear out of your effort, however reasonably, a working data of shoe restore methods. Should you fail on the left shoe, you could succeed on the appropriate. Otherwise you may undergo a couple of pair of footwear.

It might be attainable to construct your Pathfinder group’s curiosity on this honor by displaying them some shoe restore movies.

4. Satisfactorily half-sole a pair of footwear by nailing the soles on. Be sure the nails are of the correct size.[edit]

See necessities Three and eight for recommendation.

5. Match and fasten a pair of rubber heels.[edit]

See necessities Three and eight for recommendation. Here is one other Youtube video from Upside Down Shoe Restore:

6. What sort of leather-based needs to be utilized in repairing the soles of footwear? How is such leather-based typically tanned?[edit]

Leather-based utilized in shoemaking is split into two classes: higher leather-based, and sole leather-based. Higher leather-based is used for making the uppers, and is thinner, softer, and extra pliable than sole leather-based. Sole leather-based is usually produced from the conceal of a fully-grown cow, taken from the thicker elements of the animal’s pores and skin. Higher leather-based is taken from calves, goats, and different smaller animals with thinner pores and skin.

Again when this honor was initially written, leather-based was often tanned by soaking it in a shower with tree bark (often hemlock or oak). An astringent acid would leach out of the bark, and this acid is what would convert an animal pores and skin into leather-based, in a course of generally known as tanning.

Sole leather-based was most frequently tanned utilizing oak bark. Oak-tanned leather-based has a lightweight, creamy tan coloration. It’s each agency and versatile.

7. Specify at the least three components that needs to be taken into consideration within the collection of footwear.[edit]

There are numerous components to contemplate when deciding on a pair of footwear, together with, match, consolation, perform, high quality, price, and even ethical concerns. When contemplating any of those components, it’s incumbent upon the Christian to apply good stewardship.

Match and Consolation[edit]

Presumably crucial issue to contemplate when deciding on a shoe is that it suits correctly. Improperly fitted footwear could cause discomfort, soreness, and even harm. Footwear needs to be snug. It’s irresponsible to sacrifice consolation for the sake of fashion, although there are exceptions to this (i.e., the shoe won’t be worn for very lengthy and the wearer has no different choice, resembling serving because the member of a marriage social gathering).

You need to have your toes measured each time you purchase footwear if they’re nonetheless rising. Even after they cease rising, it is nonetheless a good suggestion to have them measured often, as their form might change. There are two parameters that specify the shoe measurement: size, and width.


Shoe measurement in america and Canada relies on the size of the final, measured in inches, multiplied by Three and minus a continuing. This fixed differs for footwear supposed for males, ladies and kids.

Girls’s sizes are nearly at all times decided with the “frequent” scale, during which ladies’s sizes are equal to males’s sizes plus 1.5 (for instance, a males’s 10.5 is a ladies’s 12).

Within the much less common scale, generally known as the “commonplace” or “FIA” (Footwear Industries of America) scale, ladies’s sizes are males’s sizes plus 1 (so a males’s 10.5 is a ladies’s 11.5).

Kids’s sizes are equal to males’s sizes plus 12.33. Thus ladies’ and boys’ sizes don’t differ, though males’s and ladies’s do.

For the worldwide market, the ISO 9407 commonplace is used for specifying shoe size.


Some producers supply footwear of various width for a similar foot size. Such footwear are then additionally labelled in line with the width or girth of the widest a part of the foot (usually measured immediately behind the toes with the topic standing on each toes and carrying socks or hose).

Within the Mondopoint system, the shoe measurement label can state along with the size additionally the width of the imply foot for which the shoe is appropriate, each measured in millimetres.

Quite a lot of different ad-hoc notations for width or girth are additionally used. Examples embody (every beginning with the narrowest width):

  • AAAA, AAA, AA, A, B, C, D, E, EE, EEE, EEEE
  • 4A, 3A, 2A, A, B, C, D, E, 2E, 3E, 4E
  • N, R, W

None of those designations are formally standardized. The precise foot width for which these sizes are appropriate can differ considerably between producers. The A-E width indicators utilized by some US and UK shoe producers are usually based mostly on the width of the foot, and customary step sizes are 1/Four inch (6 mm) or 3/16 inch (5 mm).


The following consideration when deciding on a shoe is the exercise to be carried out when carrying the shoe. You wouldn’t put on excessive heels on a backpacking journey, nor would you put on flip-flops to a marriage. Totally different footwear have completely different functions, although fortunately, some are multi-purpose. Here’s a record of among the forms of footwear accessible:

  • Costume footwear
  • Informal footwear
  • Athletic footwear
  • Trainers
  • Mountain climbing boots
  • Climbing footwear
  • Paddling footwear
  • Work boots
  • Metal-toed boots
  • Snow boots
  • Golf footwear
  • Bowling footwear
  • Slippers

High quality[edit]

In case your toes have stopped rising, it is sensible to purchase the very best quality footwear which you can afford. Top quality footwear won’t solely last more than low-cost ones, they’re cheaper in the long term as a result of they won’t have to get replaced as typically. A low-quality shoe can even make your toes sore and even trigger harm by not offering correct arch or ankle assist.

In case you are shopping for footwear for an individual who’s rising shortly, it’s best to nonetheless search a top quality shoe, however at this level the objective is match the anticipated lifetime of the shoe to the period of time it’s going to match.


Price can be a vital consideration. Some footwear are very costly, not due to their top quality, however due to the identify connected to them. Although top quality footwear are often costlier than low-quality footwear, this doesn’t imply that each one high-priced footwear are additionally high-quality.

Ethical concerns[edit]

Within the late 1990’s a number of shoe producers discovered themselves embroiled in controversy after it was revealed that they had been exploiting sweatshop labor in third-world international locations. There are numerous individuals who boycott numerous firms due to such practices, and there are various individuals who patronize corporations that commit themselves to respecting human rights.

8. Spend a minimal of 5 hours observing shoe restore specialists at their work store.[edit]

You need to be capable of discover a shoe restore store within the Yellow Pages (or different enterprise listing) underneath “Shoe Restore.” You can too do this website by Vibram, a shoe restore provider.

Shoe restore retailers are sometimes family-owned companies, so the probabilities of chatting with the proprietor if you enter the shop (or name on the telephone) are fairly good. It might be higher to strategy the proprietor in individual reasonably than calling, as that offers you a greater alternative to current your self. Put on a category A uniform if you go there to ask permission to observe, and be prepared to clarify what number of Pathfinders will likely be with you. Let the shop proprietor choose a time and date for the five-hour go to. The shop proprietor may additionally be prepared to instruct this honor, so it could be a good suggestion to make contact earlier than you get began.

Your go to to the work store will likely be a very good alternative to satisfy necessities 3, 4, and 5, however it’s best to in all probability carry some footwear that want these repairs with you. The proprietor will definitely not need you experimenting on his buyer’s footwear! Provide to pay for any supplies you employ when repairing your footwear.

9. Write or inform the examiners the correct strategies of cleansing and caring for footwear.[edit]

Preserve your footwear wanting their finest through the use of a cedar shoe tree. These are foot-shaped blocks of cedar wooden that match contained in the shoe. Cedar absorbs moisture and salt which might injury your footwear. Clear footwear immediately after they turn into soiled. There are 4 fundamental steps in caring for clean leather-based footwear: clear, situation, polish, and weatherproof.


First it’s best to lay some newspapers out in your work space and take away the laces from the footwear. Brush the filth off with a tender brush, after which apply saddle cleaning soap or leather-based cleaner to the shoe with a tender material (you should utilize a shoe shine material or an outdated T-shirt). Work it in, after which begin to shine the shoe.


As soon as the shoe has been cleaned, you possibly can apply a conditioner. You should purchase cleaners with conditioners in them, however you may get higher outcomes utilizing a separate conditioner. The conditioner is labored into the leather-based simply because the cleaner was, and it helps to moisturize the leather-based to forestall cracking. In dry climates, you could must situation your footwear extra typically.


Most of us are aware of the liquid shoe polish merchandise that are available a bottle with a brush constructed into the lid. These polishes work properly sufficient, however the polish solely barely penetrates the floor of the leather-based and needs to be re-applied ceaselessly. It’s higher to make use of a present paste, however finest to make use of a shoe cream. Whichever you select, you’ll have to match the colour of the product to the colour of the shoe. Take a look at in an not easily seen space to just remember to have a very good coloration match. Apply shoe cream with a tender material and rub it in properly. Then let it dry totally. As soon as dry, you possibly can go over it once more with a tender material to carry out the shine.


In case you are extra interested by defending the footwear than in making them look good, you should utilize beeswax to weatherproof them. Beeswax will change the look of the shoe, however it’s most wonderful for conserving the water out. This could be a sensible choice for work or mountaineering boots. For gown footwear, you’ll want to use a spray-on product which works on invisibly. It can defend your footwear from incidental contact with water, however you shouldn’t depend on these things for wading by puddles.