Snowboarding – Cross Nation
North American Division
Ability Stage 2 Answer-Keys 06.jpg
Yr of Introduction: 1986

1. Record and describe the precept traits, qualities, and sizing of the next cross-country snowboarding gear[edit]

a. Skis (each waxable and unwaxable)[edit]

The skis are lengthy and skinny, to distribute the load of the skier and permit the skier to maneuver rapidly. Typical ski dimensions are 2 metres in size, about 5 centimetres in width and one to 4 centimetres in thickness at completely different stations alongside the size of the ski. Relying on the ski design and function, they’re match to the skier primarily based on peak and weight. Cross nation skis are generally informally often known as “skinny skis” due to their thinness in comparison with alpine skis.

Lately, waxless skis have carved a distinct segment available in the market amongst informal skiers. Waxless skis have a fish scale, cross-hatched or ridged sample within the kick zone to offer grip. A waxless ski is inferior to a finely tuned waxed ski, however doesn’t require the generally time-consuming and generally pricey choice and utility of kick wax or klister and can work between temperatures, an essential benefit in areas with many solar/shadow boundaries. Some skiers apply a layer of glide wax to maintain them sliding easily and defending the floor from dust and ice build-up. There are specialty liquid wax merchandise in the marketplace manufactured for waxless skis, although commonplace glide wax will also be used on the information and tails of the ski.

Waxless skis are higher suited to leisure skiers who merely need to get out on the path with minimal time spent on upkeep, as they often produce an excessive amount of drag for aggressive skiers.

Waxless skis are generally utilized by Nordic racers throughout variable ski situations equivalent to temperatures over freezing. In truth, some Nordic ski racers utilizing waxless skis have overwhelmed racers who used waxable skis as a result of variable and altering situations.

b. Bindings[edit]

There are three main teams of binding techniques utilized in trendy cross-country snowboarding:

  • NNN (New Nordic Norm) – together with the brand new R4 NIS variant
  • SNS (Salomon Nordic System) Profil
  • SNS Pilot

Older styled three-pin bindings (Nordic Norm), with or with out cables, are nonetheless utilized by backcountry and Telemarking fans.

Additional variants to NNN and SNS are “BC” (back-country) requirements, the place the toe maintain within the binding is wider and the bar within the boot’s toe is longer and thicker to be able to give additional lateral rigidity. This added energy and rigidity is particularly essential with the stiffer boots and heavier skis utilized in backcountry snowboarding.

The prevailing number of binding techniques, none of that are appropriate with the opposite, has lengthy since been a supply of frustration for skiers ever since producers diverged from the virtually common three-pin commonplace. Whereas downhill snowboarding has a standard binding system permitting any boot to work with any binding wanting the dynafit-system, trendy cross-country skiers should match the skis’ binding system to the boot kind. When it’s time to change the boot, the skier should both be restricted to boots of the identical binding system or additionally change the skis’ binding.

New Nordic Norm[edit]

Rottefella developed the New Nordic Norm (NNN) binding, and licenses it to Rossignol, Madshus, Atomic, and, starting in 2007, Fischer. These bindings have subtypes, such because the NNN-BC for backcountry use, the R3 Skate, the R3 Traditional, and the R4 NIS (Nordic Built-in System). The NIS system requires skis which have a completely bonded plate that the binding slides onto. This permits for the skier to mount their very own bindings with no need to screw into the ski. By doing this the skier can simply tune the place of the binding relative to the middle of gravity of the ski, stated to be helpful in numerous snow situations. NNN boots are made by Alpina Sports activities, Madshus, Rossignol and starting in 2007, Fischer. The R3 and R4 are usually the selection for World Cup Racers utilizing NNN. These are distinguished from the SNS (Salomon and Atomic) binding in that every one NNN bindings have two longitudinal ridges that stand out from the underside of the binding that mate with corresponding slots in NNN boots. There may be a lot debate over which is the superior binding system: SNS or NNN. Total, the variations between the NNN and SNS binding techniques are minuscule to the common skier; the selection ought to come right down to which binding matches with the boot that occurs to suit a given skier.

The R4 NIS binding, made by Rottefella and Rossignol, is the latest variant of the NNN binding. These bindings are appropriate with any NNN boot, however can solely be used on skis that include the completely bonded plate, presently made solely by Rossignol, Madshus, and Fischer. The NIS binding made its debut to most people in 2005.

Salomon Nordic System Profil[edit]

SNS binding and ski boots, each of the Salomon model.

Salomon Nordic System (SNS) bindings, made by Salomon and Atomic, nonetheless, have their benefits too. Boots which might be appropriate with the SNS Profil system are made by Salomon, Atomic, Adidas, and Hartjes. SNS Profil bindings are used for each Skating and Traditional. Versus the SNS Pilot’s two axes, these boots have just one axis on the entrance of the only real. Pilots are utilized by many various racers on the World Cup Circuit. Profil bindings are the usual binding for SNS customers, its solely competitors being the SNS Pilot system. Profil is available in “Equipe” fashions for racing, “Lively” for leisure racing/mixture, Auto Touring, and Again Nation. Fischer was for a few years synonymous with SNS as properly, however switched to the extra broadly used NNN for the 2007/2008 season and past.

Salomon Nordic System Pilot[edit]

SNS Pilot bindings, appropriate with Salomon, Atomic, Adidas and Hartjes boots. As of the 2006/2007 season, Atomic may even have SNS pilot on their boots. The thought for these bindings got here from Bjørn Dæhlie. Pilots are used principally by elite skiers on the Collegiate/Olympians/World Cup/Nationwide stage, though it’s common to seek out Excessive Faculty/Citizen Racers with these bindings and their counterpart boots. Pilots are costlier than Profils at about 100 U.S. {dollars} for a pair, and have two fully completely different designs for skate snowboarding and classical snowboarding. In Pilot boots, two axes (metallic bars), one positioned about 1″ (2.5 cm) behind the opposite, click on into two completely different slots within the Pilot binding. Profil boots solely have one axis and due to this fact can’t match into Pilot bindings. Nevertheless, Pilot boots can match into most Profil bindings, resulting from a small house behind the entrance of the boot for the opposite axis. Pilot Skate bindings are superior to Profil as a result of two latches decreasing ski movement within the air. The Pilot Traditional (launched on the finish of the 2005-2006 season) does not have the bumper discovered on all NNN and SNS Profil bindings. These new boots and bindings present a superior delicate kick via a spring loaded again slot for the again axis. In contrast to the rubber bumpers, this spring has adjustable stress that may be modified in numerous snow situations. Fischer has now began producing their new boots with the NNN system.

c. Sneakers[edit]

Sneakers (boots) are coated within the Bindings part above.

d. Poles[edit]

Like alpine snowboarding, cross-country skiers carry two poles, often product of aluminium or fiberglass. Dearer poles are product of graphite or carbon fiber or another robust however light-weight materials. Poles have a spike on the finish to offer a set pivot when the pole penetrates via to a tough floor, and a plastic net or disc (known as the basket), to offer further buy in snow and to make sure the pole does not sink too deeply.

2. Describe and exhibit how the above gear could be ready to be used and cared for each on the sector and in the course of the off season.[edit]

a. Skis[edit]

b. Bindings[edit]

c. Sneakers[edit]

d. Poles[edit]

3. What consideration ought to be made when deciding on clothes to be worn whereas cross-country snowboarding? What options would you search for when deciding on a pack for cross-country ski touring?[edit]

4. Exhibit correctly on skis the next journey methods[edit]

a. Flat striding with good kick, buy, and type[edit]

b. Single poling, change-up, and double poling[edit]

c. Facet stepping up and down slopes[edit]

d. Herringbone slope climbing[edit]

e. Traverse-side stepping up slope with kick turns[edit]

f. Straight up slope climbing[edit]

g. Straight downhill working beneath management, 20 diploma slope (schuss)[edit]

h. Shifting step turning down slope[edit]

i. Snow plowing for slowing velocity and stopping[edit]

j. Sitback stopping[edit]

5. Clarify the aim of waxing. Briefly clarify the necessity for various waxes for various snow varieties and temperatures.[edit]

6. Clarify primary security precautions to observe in cross-country snowboarding.[edit]

7. Know and clarify the official Nationwide Ski guidelines for conduct in cross-country snowboarding.[edit]

8. Exhibit snowboarding capacity by doing the next[edit]

a. Take three separate three-mile path excursions with one other particular person. If attainable, have various snow situations.[edit]

b. Take a ten-mile tour over various terrain.[edit]

c. Throughout all excursions carry vital gear (safely) and put on correct clothes for situations demonstrating capacity to take care of correct physique temperature, dryness, and situation.[edit]