Meals – Drying
Family Arts
Common Convention
Talent Degree 2 Answer-Keys 06.jpg
12 months of Introduction: 1986

1. Listing not less than three alternative ways to dry meals.[edit]

Solar Drying[edit]

Meals may be dried within the solar, however provided that the temperatures are close to 100 °F (38 °C) and the humidity is low. The fruit have to be lined with cheesecloth (or one thing comparable) to guard it from bugs. Whether it is dried on a desk, the desk legs needs to be set in cans of water to forestall bugs from crawling up the legs and moving into the fruit. The fruit will take a number of days to dry, and the humidity and different climate situations have to be monitored. If the temperature drops considerably throughout the evening, dew could kind, and the fruit will take up it rapidly. Due to this, it might be essential to take the fruit indoors at evening.

Oven Drying[edit]

That is the quickest technique to dry meals, however solely small portions at a time may be dried this fashion. The oven is preheated to about 140 °F (60 °C) and the meals is positioned on racks within the oven. The door have to be held open about two inches (5 cm) for a gasoline oven, or about Four inches (10 cm) for an electrical oven. A thermometer is positioned within the heart of the rack to ensure the temperature stays close to 140 °F (60 °C). A fan needs to be positioned close to the open oven door in order that air contained in the oven can flow into and permit the moisture to flee.

The meals trays have to be rotated each 30 minutes as a result of the warmth contained in the oven won’t be distributed evenly. Rotate the trays from entrance to again, high to backside, and left to proper.

Meals Dryer[edit]

Meals dryers may be bought or home-built. They will dry extra meals than an oven nevertheless it takes just a little longer. Additionally they use much less electrical energy than an electrical oven. A meals dryer is an enclosed field with a warmth supply, a fan, and a set of racks upon which the meals is positioned. Most home-built meals dryers use a 100 watt mild bulb as the warmth supply. It takes 4 to 6 hours to dry a batch of meals in a meals dryer, and like ovens, they function at about 140 °F (60 °C).

You’ll be able to construct your personal meals dryer by lining a cardboard field with Styrofoam insulation, after which masking the Styrofoam with aluminum foil. Alternately, you should utilize insulation board with the foil already hooked up (that is accessible at most house enchancment shops). It is extremely necessary that you just line the insulation with foil, as this displays the warmth away from the insulation which might in any other case soften. Make an insulated lid for the field as nicely, however depart a niche at one finish for moisture to flee.

The following factor you have to is a light-weight fixture. Use a easy porcelain base, and mount it to a metal ceiling field (each of those can be found within the electrical part of a ironmongery shop). If desired, you can too use the thermostat from a water heater to manage the temperature. These thermostats are usually settable between 40°C- 65°C100°F-150°F – it would be best to set it to 60°C140°F. For those who purchase a deep ceiling field, you may mount the thermostat inside it, however ensure it makes good contact with the ceiling field in order that warmth is performed to it. For those who can not mount the thermostat contained in the field you have to to cowl the terminals, as they’ll each carry family voltage (which is sufficient to kill an individual who is available in contact with it).

The final merchandise you have to is an extension wire. Lower the “feminine” finish of it off and throw it away. Make a gap in field and poke the lower finish via. Then run it via a gap within the ceiling field. Strip the ends of the wire and join them to the porcelain mild fixture. Tighten the clamp on the ceiling field to carry the extension wire in place. Screw in a 100 Watt bulb and plug within the wire. If the sunshine doesn’t activate, unplug and verify your wiring.

For those who decide to make use of a thermostat, wire the “sizzling” wire on the extension wire (that is the one which connects to the narrower of the 2 blades on the plug) to both terminal of the thermostat. Run a wire from the remaining terminal of the thermostat to the sunshine fixture. The impartial wire (related to the large blade of the plug) needs to be related to the remaining terminal on the sunshine fixture.

Lastly, mount the fixture contained in the insulated field and rig up a rack to carry your meals trays. Maintain an in depth eye on it the primary time you utilize it.

If you don’t use a thermostat, place a thermometer contained in the field and regulate it. You’ll be able to management the temperature by various the width of the hole within the lid, or by utilizing a special wattage mild bulb.

2. Why and the way do you sulphur fruits?[edit]

Commercially ready dried fruit could comprise sulfur dioxide which might set off bronchial asthma in delicate people, although dried fruit with out sulfur dioxide can be accessible, notably in well being shops. The sulphur is added to “repair” the color of the product. “Natural” dried fruit is produced with out sulphur which leads to darkish fruit and the flavour is rather more attribute of the recent fruit. The colour of some fruits can be “mounted” to some extent, with minimal influence on taste, by treating the freshly lower fruit with a preparation wealthy in Vitamin C (e.g., a mix of water and lemon juice) for a couple of minutes previous to drying.

Sulphuring fruit is achieved by burning a block of sulphur in an enclosed field (akin to a dehydrator) with the fruit inside. The burning sulphur provides off sulphur dioxide which fixes the colour of the fruit. This could solely be finished exterior.

3. How is dried fruit saved and shielded from bugs?[edit]

As quickly because it cools, dried fruit needs to be packed into insect-proof containers, akin to glass jars or steel cans with tight-fitting lids. Don’t let sulphured fruit contact steel, as this can trigger the fruit to turn out to be discolored. You’ll be able to pack fruit into plastic baggage after which place that in a steel container. Plastic baggage will not be 100% insect (or rodent) proof, so be sure you retailer the fruit in a spot the place they can not get to it. A cool, dry place is greatest.

4. How are dried meals reconstituted?[edit]

Simply add water. It’s also possible to simmer them in boiling water for 15 minutes.

5. What’s necessary in deciding on fruit for use in making fruit leather-based?[edit]

The fruit have to be ripe, or barely overripe. You’ll want to use good high quality fruit, as it’s going to make good high quality fruit leather-based. Choose fruit that’s recent, and absolutely sound – principally, the identical belongings you search for when deciding on fruit for the desk. Lower out any dangerous components of the fruit. The saying, “one dangerous apple spoils the whole thing” applies to fruit leather-based, as a foul piece of fruit can impart a foul taste to any of the fruit it comes into contact with. In making fruit leather-based, the fruit is pureed earlier than drying, so the dangerous fruit will come into contact with all the fruit.

6. How are dried nuts saved?[edit]

Dried nuts have to be saved in a cool, dry place in air-tight containers to forestall reabsorption of moisture.

7. Dry the next and supply samples for testing[edit]

a. Bread. Make crumbs and use in a recipe for sampling.[edit]

Bread may be dried with out using particular gear by putting a number of slices in a big bowl and masking it with a towel. The bowl needs to be stored indoors. After a number of days, the bread will likely be dry (often known as “stale”) and it may possibly then be crumbled. The same old use for bread crumbs is to make stuffing. You could use any stuffing recipe you want (so long as it makes use of bread crumbs), or you should utilize this one:


  • 1 small onion
  • 1 stalk of celery
  • 1 clove garlic
  • 2 Tablespoons butter or margarine
  • 1/2 teaspoon sage
  • 1/2 teaspoon thyme
  • 1 cup vegetable broth
  • Four cups bread crumbs


Finely chop the onion, celery, and garlic, then sauté them within the margarine in a 2 quart pot till clear. Add the sage and thyme and vegetable broth and simmer for five minutes. Take away from warmth and add the bread crumbs, folding them into the combination. Let it sit for 10 minutes, fluff, and serve.

b. Fruit leather-based[edit]

Wash the fruit and puree it in a meals processor. Line a shallow pan with wax paper, being positive to deliver the sides up in order that the pureed fruit can not run below it. Pour the fruit puree into the pan till it’s a few quarter inch deep (0.6 cm). Place it within the meals dryer set to 140 °F (60 °C). Examine it after 4 hours (however it might take for much longer). Take away the fruit when it’s cheesy to the contact. Take away it and the wax paper from the pan and slice into skinny strips, leaving the wax paper hooked up. Roll the strips (and wax paper) right into a spiral and place in a sealable plastic bag. Retailer in a cool dry place. Fruit leather-based may be saved for as much as six months.

c. Vegetable leather-based[edit]

You may make vegetable leather-based from nearly any kind of vegetable as long as it’s pureed first. A shortcut is to make use of child meals as the start line, after which proceed as with fruit leather-based. Listed here are two different recipes (in case your Pathfinders insurgent on the considered consuming child meals).

Pumpkin Leather-based[edit]

  • 2 cups of canned pumpkin, or 2 cups of recent pumpkin, cooked and pureed.
  • 1/2 cup honey
  • 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
  • 1/Four teaspoon nutmeg (powdered)
  • 1/Four teaspoon cloves (powdered)

Mix substances and dry at 140 °F (60 °C) (similar as for fruit leather-based).

Tomato Leather-based[edit]

Core and slice ripe tomatoes into quarters. Boil for 15 minutes. Take away from water, pressure via a colander or a sieve. Add salt (if desired for flavoring), and simmer till thick. Unfold on a plastic or wax paper lined tray and dry at 140 °F (60 °C) (similar as for fruit leather-based).

d. Fruit slices[edit]

Most fruits have to be pretreated earlier than they’re dried. Apples needs to be cored, peeled, and sliced. Fruits with pits (akin to peaches, nectarines, and cherries) needs to be break up in half and pitted.

Skinny slices of fruit dry faster than thick slices, so you will need to slice fruit into uniform thicknesses in order that it dries evenly.

Fruit with thick, waxy skins (akin to blueberries and cherries) have to be cracked earlier than it’s dried. Cracking the pores and skin permits the moisture to flee. To crack the fruit, drop it in boiling water for 30–60 seconds, after which rapidly transfer it to very chilly water.

Some fruits, akin to apples, pears, and apricots turn out to be discolored rapidly after they’re peeled and sliced. To stop them from turning brown, combine two teaspoons of ascorbic acid in a single cup of water, and dip the fruit on this resolution as you’re employed with it. One cup of this resolution needs to be sufficient to deal with 5 quarts of fruit. Ascorbic acid (extra generally often called Vitamin C) is offered in most drug shops. It’s also possible to crush a 500 mg pill of Vitamin C and blend that with a quart (one liter) of water. Soak the fruit in that resolution for 2 to 3 minutes.

As soon as the fruit has been ready, prepare it in a single layer on a drying tray with the lower facet up (if lower in half). Lastly, place the trays in a meals dryer, and wait. The period of time varies relying on the fruit, how thick the slices are, et cetera. It ought to take between 4 and ten hours to dry.

e. Vegetable slices (akin to carrots) or items (akin to peas)[edit]

Choose ripe, prime quality greens. Lower out any dangerous spots, discard overripe items, and slice into skinny, uniform items (except you might be beginning with small greens akin to peas).

Practically all greens have to be blanched earlier than they’re dried. Blanching stops enzymes from destroying the greens. Drying by itself does not cease the enzyme motion. To blanch greens, drop them in boiling water for a minute or two. Then cool them in ice water for a similar period of time that they have been blanched. Blanching does take away some vitamins from the greens, so be sure you blanch them for less than the minimal specified time (see desk).

Organize the greens on a drying tray in a single layer. Place the trays within the dryer at 140 °F (60 °C) with a minimal of 1 inch between trays. Drying will take between 4 and twelve hours. Flip the vegetable items each thirty minutes and rearrange them on the tray in order that they’re dried evenly (completely different areas on the trays will dry at completely different charges). The items are dry when they’re onerous and brittle. You’ll be able to take a look at them by hanging a bit with a hammer. If it shatters, the vegetable is dry.

Vegetable Blanching Time
Drying Time
Asparagus 3.5 – 4.5 1 – 3
Inexperienced Beans 3 – 4 2.5 – 4
Carrots 3.5 2.5 – 4
Corn 5 – 8 4
Onions don’t blanch 1 – 3
Peas 3 3
Potatoes 6 – 8 2 – 4
Summer time Squash 1.5 – 2 2.5 – 3
(3/4″ thick)
1 3.5 – 4

f. Vegetarian jerky[edit]

  • 1 lb agency tofu
  • 1/2 cup Bragg Liquid Aminos
  • 3-Four tablespoons liquid smoke
  • 1 teaspoon garlic powder
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1 teaspoon pepper
  • 1 teaspoon honey
  • 1 teaspoon onion powder
  • 1/Eight cup water
  1. Drain and slice the tofu into quarter-inch (5mm) thick, lengthy, slim slices
  2. Combine all of the substances, including the tofu slice final in shallow baking dish. Cowl and refrigerate in a single day.
  3. Dry at 140 °F (60 °C) 4–6 hours, turning hourly.

Simple Vegetarian Jerky[edit]

  1. Unfold Stripples out in a single layer in meals dehydrator or oven (set on lowest temperature setting).
  2. Flip stripples a few times as wanted for even drying, all through drying time.

g. Parsley or another herb[edit]

Recent parsley, mint, oregano, basil, marjoram, and rosemary may be dried with none particular gear. Merely bundle the recent herbs and cling them in a dry nook of the kitchen out of direct daylight for a few weeks. It’s also possible to dry them by spreading them out on a dish towel.

8. Reconstitute a vegetable and cook dinner for sampling.[edit]

Greens may be reconstituted by soaking them in water for 2 or three hours. They need to return to their full measurement. Prepare dinner any approach you want.